"In quorum omnium et singulorum fidem et testimonium...presens
publicum instrumentum...publicari mandavimus sigillique nostri
iussimus et fecimus appensione communiri."
The solemn and concise pronouncement of the seal expressed at the end of the
sixteenth century defines the precarious condition of an object made of
morphologically fragile material whose life is
literally dangling on a thread.
Tackling the problems related to the restoration of seals often means setting out on
a path strewn with difficulties and almost insurmountable obstacles that have to be
overcome to achieve excellent results in the discipline.
Indeed, in the Italian scenario it has still not been decided whether seals possess a special dignity
requiring the attention of experts.
The linguistic symbiosis suggested by the diplomatic science that talks about
"litterae pendentes", "mandatum pendens" or "bulla" to indicate documents having
seals sums up a certain degree of
confusion of expertise.
In point of fact, especially in the last decades, the restoration of seals was not
infrequently entrusted to paper or parchment restoration specialists, even if the
various materials seals are made of require multidisciplinary knowhow.
Experts in the restoration of seals have to command specific expertise on a wide range of materials,
such as metal (bulls), wood (skippets), textile fibres (cords) and above all wax.


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